In the previous posts the Maximum load-ability problem without FACTS devices was discussed and modeled as an optimization problem.The problem has to modified to include the effect of FACTS devices. A brief introduction is given on the different FACTS devices.
A flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS)
It is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network. It is generally a power electronics-based system. There are two types of FACTS devices series and shuunt connected devies.
In series compensation, the FACTS is connected in series with the power system. It works as a controllable voltage source. Series inductance occurs in long transmission lines, and when a large current flow causes a large voltage drop. To compensate, series capacitors are connected.
In shunt compensation, power system is connected in shunt (parallel) with the FACTS. It works as a controllable current source. Shunt compensation is of two types:
- Shunt capacitive compensation
- This method is used to improve the power factor. Whenever an inductive load is connected to the transmission line, power factor lags because of lagging load current. To compensate, a shunt capacitor is connected which draws current leading the source voltage. The net result is improvement in power factor.
- Shunt inductive compensation
- This method is used either when charging the transmission line, or, when there is very low load at the receiving end. Due to very low, or no load – very low current flows through the transmission line. Shunt capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage amplification (Ferranti Effect). The receiving end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission lines). To compensate, shunt inductors are connected across the transmission line.
Series compensation devices
- Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)
- Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC): a series capacitor bank is shunted by a thyristor-controlled reactor
- Thyristor-controlled series reactor (TCSR): a series reactor bank is shunted by a thyristor-controlled reactor
- Thyristor-switched series capacitor (TSSC): a series capacitor bank is shunted by a thyristor-switched reactor
- Thyristor-switched series reactor (TSSR): a series reactor bank is shunted by a thyristor-switched reactor
Shunt compensation devices
Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM); previously known as a static condenser (STATCON)
- Static VAR compensator (SVC).